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What is a DOI?

What if there's no DOI for the article?


APA 7th edition says you needn't include the database name or URL of the journal homepage.

HOWEVER - check with the professor to see if they agree.

MLA 8th edition says use the URL of the journal homepage.


DOI is a Digital Object Identifier.

This sequence of characters assigned to an online article provides a persistent link to a published online article. Each persistent link provides

  • an abstract of the article 
  • an opportunity to acquire the full text version of the article.

Why do you need to know?
A DOI is required by some citation styles (APA, Chicago, MLA 8th ed.)


For more information visit, the Digital Object Identifier System.

In RefWorks, if you're NOT sending the citation from a database, but creating a new one, this is how you include a DOI:

  1. Click Add then Create new reference.
  2. In the pop-up bar on the right, click the blue Add more fields... button at the bottom to add DOI or any other information.

RefWorks add citation including DOI