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ENV-220 (Druckenbrod, Spring_2020)

Weather and Climate Change

Review for APA Citations


Rider's Policies on Plagiarism

The Rider Libraries webpage has information and links to resources on plagiarism. The following information is from this website (

"Plagiarism is the representation of the ideas of others as one's own. Unfortunately, plagiarism can be unintentional, as well as intentional (Example: George Harrison).

Like most colleges and universities, Rider takes a strong stand against plagiarism. The Code of Academic Conduct published in The Source: Student Handbook reads:

  • Academic dishonesty includes any unauthorized collaboration or misrepresentation in the submission of academic work. In all written work, whether in class or out of class, the student's name on the work is considered to be a statement that the work is his or hers alone, except as otherwise indicated. Students are expected to provide proper citations for the statements and ideas of others whether submitted word for word, or paraphrased. Failure to provide proper citations will be considered plagiarism and offenders will be subject to the charge of plagiarism specified in the statement of regulations.

The full text of the Code and suggestions for avoiding plagiarism are found in Rider University's  Student Code of Social Conduct.

The Libraries' website provides excerpts of style guides to assist you in using correct citations to give attributions.

Other helpful sites include:

Do not hesitate to ask librarians for assistance in avoiding plagiarism"

The Purdue Writing Lab has information on creating APA citations:

When all else fails, consult the APA Manual in the Reference area:  REF BF 76.7 .P83 2010

The Reference List contains the following components:

  • author name or names
  • publication date
  • title of the work
  • publication data  (if applicable, name of journal, volume, page numbers)


For journal articles:

  • Type the article title in sentence case and journal title in title case.
  • Italicize journal title and volume number
  • Include the issue number in parentheses
  • Include the DOI (digital object identifier) if available, do not place a period after the DOI

Citing Sources within the Body of the Paper (in-text citations):




Paraphrasing: When/How/Why Should I Do It?

Paraphrasing gives you the room to condense a text’s ideas into your own words.  You can use this, for example, to rewrite a definition, to emphasize important points, or to clarify ideas that might be hard for the reader to understand if you quote the original text.

When you paraphrase, remember that you still need to cite the source in-text!

Depending on your field and the style guide your field follows, you may be required to paraphrase more than quote or summarize. Make sure you are familiar with the writing conventions for your field. APA, for example, draws much more on paraphrase than MLA.

Example of a Paraphrase

Let’s look at an example of a paraphrase.  Note that here the author of this paraphrase has used the author’s name first as an attributive tag – she is letting the reader know who wrote this.  She then goes on to put the writer’s ideas into her own words, but acknowledges directly where the ideas came from by using the in-text citation at the end of the second sentence.

Paraphrase: Original Text from "On Japan's Propensity for Native Speakers of English," by Nobuyuki Honna
[Japanese people] are ashamed if they do not speak English the way native speakers do.  Given an Anglophile goal as their guiding light, Japanese students of English…accept their limited proficiency as natural and inevitable…By virtue of this perfectionism, Japanese tend to hesitate to interact with English speakers ‘until,’ as they often are heard to say, ‘they develop complete proficiency in the language’. Fears of making mistakes often prevent them from using the phrases and expressions they are learning currently (Honna 58).
Paraphrased Text:
According to Nobuyuki Honna, many Japanese believe they must speak English perfectly to be proficient.  The problem that arises with the idea of “mastering” English is that generations of Japanese students are growing up not believing they have developed a proficiency in the language such that they can communicate with a native English speaker (58).
In the above example, notice the following:
1. The author managed to encapsulate the longer passage into two sentences.
2. The paraphrase has an attirbutive tag ("According to Nobuyuki Honna") and a citation at the end of the sentence.

    - This is a paraphrase for MLA; in APA, the year would come after Honna's name in parentheses.


American Psychological Association (APA)

Use NoodleTools to create a works cited page for your paper.  NoodleTools can be found on the Libraries Website  under Bibliography and Citation Tools."

When you access NoodleTools from off-campus, you will be asked first for your Rider EasyPass username and password. 

  1. Create your own NoodleTools Personal ID & Password and click Sign in.
  2. Once signed into NoodleTools, click on +New Project.
  3. Enter a project title (e.g., “LEAD 550”), select a Citation style (APA) and select Advanced for the Citation Level.
  4. This will take you to the Dashboard where you can add Project details, Sharing & Collaboration permissions and To-do items.  (No entries are required here.)
  5. Click on the Sources tab at the top of the page to start your references page. 
  6. Click on +Create a new citation.
  7. Answer the questions about your resource and complete the form.
  8. Click on Submit.
  9. To add more citations, repeat steps 6-8.
  10. To create/print your works cited page for your paper, click on Print/Export in the toolbar and select an option (e.g., Print/Export to Word).