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CMP-125 (Peters, Spring 2020)

Research writing

Applying Information

Applying that information to the question through organizing and communicating your ideas

Now that you have found information on your topic, consider how you are going to use it.

How will you construct new meaning from this information and communicate it effectively? 

It is helpful to read through all of your sources to make sure that you have the information you need.  As you read through them, you may find citations to other relevant sources.  Looking through the references in all of your sources can be helpful in finding these additional sources.

As you begin to use the information you found, it is critical to consider how you are using it.



Paraphrasing: When/How/Why Should I Do It?

Paraphrasing gives you the room to condense a text’s ideas into your own words.  You can use this, for example, to rewrite a definition, to emphasize important points, or to clarify ideas that might be hard for the reader to understand if you quote the original text.

When you paraphrase, remember that you still need to cite the source in-text!

Depending on your field and the style guide your field follows, you may be required to paraphrase more than quote or summarize. Make sure you are familiar with the writing conventions for your field. APA, for example, draws much more on paraphrase than MLA.

Example of a Paraphrase

Let’s look at an example of a paraphrase.  Note that here the author of this paraphrase has used the author’s name first as an attributive tag – she is letting the reader know who wrote this.  She then goes on to put the writer’s ideas into her own words, but acknowledges directly where the ideas came from by using the in-text citation at the end of the second sentence.

Paraphrase: Original Text from "On Japan's Propensity for Native Speakers of English," by Nobuyuki Honna
[Japanese people] are ashamed if they do not speak English the way native speakers do.  Given an Anglophile goal as their guiding light, Japanese students of English…accept their limited proficiency as natural and inevitable…By virtue of this perfectionism, Japanese tend to hesitate to interact with English speakers ‘until,’ as they often are heard to say, ‘they develop complete proficiency in the language’. Fears of making mistakes often prevent them from using the phrases and expressions they are learning currently (Honna 58).
Paraphrased Text:
According to Nobuyuki Honna, many Japanese believe they must speak English perfectly to be proficient.  The problem that arises with the idea of “mastering” English is that generations of Japanese students are growing up not believing they have developed a proficiency in the language such that they can communicate with a native English speaker (58).
In the above example, notice the following:
1. The author managed to encapsulate the longer passage into two sentences.
2. The paraphrase has an attirbutive tag ("According to Nobuyuki Honna") and a citation at the end of the sentence.

    - This is a paraphrase for MLA; in APA, the year would come after Honna's name in parentheses.


Graphic with in-text citation at end of sentence and arrows pointing to reference in Works Cited and to picture of journal with its title on cover.

This is an example of a journal article and the diagram labels the different parts of the citation.

This is an example of citing a chapter within a book.

Example of Newspaper article:

Diagram of database citation, with "Title of article" pointing to the title: "But is he really smart? Gardener's Multiple Intelligences Theory in the World of Harry Potter" which is in big letters at the top of the screen. "Journal Title" with a red arrow points to "Source: Popular Culture Review." "Date" with a red arrow points to 2003 Summer; "Volume" with a red arrow points to 14; Issue with a red arrow point to (2), and pages points to 55-61. "Click here to learn more about this journal" points to [Journal Detail] link.



Use NoodleTools to walk you through creating your Works Cited list.

You provide the correct citation elements (author, title, source, etc.).

NoodleTools takes care of the format and punctuation!

From the RU Libraries' home page, scroll down left panel to "Bibliography and Citation Tools" and click the link: NoodleTools

Modern Language Association (MLA) Citations

Use NoodleTools to create a works cited page for your paper.  NoodleTools can be found on the Libraries' home page under “Biblliography and Citation Tools.” 

When you access NoodleTools from off-campus, you will be asked first for your Rider Key username and password. 

  1. Create your own NoodleTools Personal ID & Password and click Sign in.
  2. Once signed into NoodleTools, click on +New Project.
  3. Enter a project title (e.g., “CMP 125”), select a Citation style (MLA) and select Advanced for the Citation Level.
  4. This will take you to the Dashboard where you can add Project details, Sharing & Collaboration permissions and To-do items.  (No entries are required here.)
  5. Click on the Sources tab at the top of the page to start your works cited page. 
  6. Click on +Create a new citation.
  7. Answer the questions about your resource and complete the form.
  8. Click on Submit.
  9. To add more citations, repeat steps 6-8.
  10. To create/print your works cited page for your paper, click on Print/Export in the toolbar and select an option (e.g., Print/Export to Word). 

Purdue OWL MLA Formatting and Style Guide

The MLA Style Center: Writing Resources from the Modern Language Association

"The MLA Style Center, published by the Modern Language Association, is the only authorized Web site about MLA style. This free, evolving resource is designed as a companion to the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook."

MLA Handbook available in Moore Library:

Moore Reference Room LB2369 .G53 2016   Available ---    
Moore Reserves (Circulation Desk) TEXTBOOK CMP 115   Available  Ask at Circulation Desk